1. What is LED lighting?
At its most rudimentary level, LED stands for Light Emitting Diode. This is light produced using a semiconductor in a process called electroluminescence. The process is much more effective than what’s used by outmoded incandescent lights and has a much elongated lifecycle. Its small size and moderately cooler operating temperature means that it can be used in shapes and forms that would have been unmanageable to light with obsolete bulbs.
2. How do LEDs Work?
LEDs are comprised of 3 chief components: the LED's (the chip set that produces light), the driver (converts AC to DC) and the heat sink (to keep everything cool). LEDs take DC power from the driver and create light. The heat sink captures heat from the LEDs and the drivers. Although LEDs produce significantly less heat than the light bulbs we have been used to over the past century, the heat they produce must be managed. The better this is done, the longer the life of the product. LED's also performs the job of converting electricity to light more efficiently than other light sources, that is why we can replace a 400W metal halide bulb with a 100W LED retrofit.
3. How efficient are LED bulbs compared to incandescent bulbs?
The efficacy of the newer LED light bulbs is more than five times higher than comparable incandescent bulbs. In other words, led light bulbs use only about 20% as much electricity to produce the same amount of light. However, because LED bulbs direct a larger percentage of light where it is needed, in many applications they are as much as ten times as effective as incandescent bulbs, reducing energy use by 90%.
4. Are LEDs blue light?
Many people have a tilted impression of LED from early versions of the technology in which, yes, the light did have a blue tint to it. But the industry is constantly developing, and LEDs are now being designed to meet our expectations for the lighting we’d want in our homes. The color of light produced is measured on the Kelvin scale, where a lower number equates to a warmer light—the higher the number, the whiter, (and, yes, eventually bluer) the light will be. There are currently two main color temperatures that we are seeing produced. 2700 Kelvin is a warm light on par with a standard household bulb. 3000 Kelvin is slightly whiter but still warm tone, on par with a halogen bulb. Some brands go higher, offering 3500 and 4000 Kelvin options if you prefer an even whiter light.
5. What is CRI?
CRI is Color Rendering Index. It is a measurement of the quality of light. Whereas lumens is a measurement of the quantity of light, CRI is the measurement of quality. It is a scale between 0 and 100. 0 is bad, 100 is great. LED's typically are in the 70-95 range. The higher the CRI, the more expensive the LED chip, and therefore the more expensive the product itself.
6. What do "cool white" and "warm white" mean, and what is CCT?
The Color Correlated Temperature (CCT) ranges from a warm yellow white (2700K) to a cool blue white (7000K). By comparison, a typical incandescent bulb has a CCT of 2800K. A typical halogen is a bit higher, maybe 3500K. Daylight white is 4500K and a cool white fluorescent is 6000K or more. The human eye adapts to background light so that even a daylight white bulb will look slightly blue in a room illuminated mainly with incandescent bulbs. Similarly, an incandescent bulb will look very yellow or even orange in midday sunlight.
7. What are the benefits of replacing your ordinary bulbs with the LED?
There are many benefits. Here is a list of a few:
  • Less heat. LED fixtures are enormously efficient transforming electricity into light.
  • LED Bulbs are much durable, typically 50,000 to 100,000 hours.
  • An immediate decrease in your electricity bill.
  • Extremely recyclable - with no hazardous parts, you can easily reclaim most of the parts in an environmentally safe way.
  • They are virtually imperishable.
They do not contain mercury or other menacing materials
8. What are the advantages of switching to LED?
The advantages of switching to LED are numerous. Here are just some of the paybacks: LEDs use much less electricity than other bulbs, have extremely long lasting lives, produce very petite heat, do not emit UV or infrared, contain no mercury, are impervious to shock and vibration, and can operate effectually in enormously cold environments. LEDs are very green. For starters, they use much fewer electricity than numerous other lighting products. This means that less electricity has to be produced to operate them, and resulting in lower emissions from power plants, especially in areas where coal-fired plants are common. Unlike CFLs, they contain no mercury. Because of their long life, they also reduce solid waste: If you interchange an incandescent bulb with an LED, you will avert fifty 1,000 hour incandescent bulbs from being thrown away. Additionally, they produce very little heat and can diminish energy usage associated to HVAC.
9. How long do LEDs really last?
LED has an extensive lifespan, with most current options rated with at least 20,000 hours of operation. Some brands are pushing that limit, and many offer 30,000 to 50,000 hours as standard—we are even seeing options at 90,000 hours. This means that you can select a lifespan that will work for your needs. While a fixture used only a few hours a day can last 20+ years, some fixtures left on all day and night will expire faster. All in all, there are numerous recompenses of switching to LED lighting in your home.
10. How much money can you save when converting to LED?
It all depends what you are changing. Incandescent to LED, fluorescent to LED, Metal Halide to LED do provide atleast a 70%+ savings on your energy consumption.
11. Why Change To LED Lighting?
If you're considering switching to LED lighting in your facility, changing to this type of lighting can be much more favorable for your business. LED lighting is more energy-efficient, requiring much less electrical power to provide sufficient illumination in most areas. LED lights are also premeditated to last longer than older types of bulbs, lasting for many years without the need for frequent replacement. Keep your facilities properly lit with LED lights while reducing the chances of burnouts using long-lasting LED.
Because of their energy efficiency, you'll be able to save money on LED lights, helping allocate investments in more important matters.
12. What is the LED Lighting Facts label?
Manufacturers who take the pledge agree to present the LED Lighting Facts label on product packaging or in product literature. The label reports product performance results in five areas:
  • Lumens
  • Lumens per watt (lm/W)
  • Watts at 120 VAC
  • Correlated Color Temperature (CCT)
  • Color Rendering Index (CRI)
Manufacturers also have the option of listing warranty and lumen maintenance information on the label, but this is not required.
13. What is IP Rating?
The IP rating of a light fitting is articulated as a 2 digit code (from 00 to 68) and is a measure of how well the fitting is protected against solid objects and moisture. It stands for ‘Ingress Protection’.
The first number is on a scale of 0-6 (or X which means it has not been tested) and the second is on a scale of 0-8 (or again X). You don’t need to worry too much about the IP rating for domestic and office fittings but for anything that is to be fitted outside or anywhere there may be airborne pollutants or dampness that could impair the interior components of the fitting, the IP rating should be at least 54, preferably 65.
14. What are Lumens?
Lumens, put basically, are a measure of the total amount of visible light emitted from a light source. The higher the lumens, the brighter the light.
15. What is LUX?
Lux is the standard unit of measurement of light level intensity. People often get themselves puzzled between lumens and lux which is explicable.
The easiest way to recollect the variance is that lumens are the measurement of the amount of light emitted from a light source whereas lux is the amount of light at a specific point away from the light source i.e. 3,500 lumens gives 400 lux at x distance away.
A measurement of 1 lux is equal to the illumination of a surface one metre away from a single candle.
16. What is efficacy (Lumens Per Watt)?
Efficacy is a degree of how much light is produced per watt of energy put in to it.
This is typically expressed in lm/W (lumens per watt). It’s important to remember that not all LED fittings are the same and that there is an enormous variability of quality and cost available, in the same way as there is with a car engine. Efficacy is without hesitation one of the most important things to deliberate when picking an LED light fitting.
High end products can reach around 150 lm/W or even higher whereas typically the budget end of the market can be as low as 70 or 80 lm/W, this means that it is quite often a fabricated economy when buying cheap.
As an example, a 45w LED panel with 80 lm/W produces the same light output as a 30w panel with an efficacy of 120 lm/W. Have a think about what that means over say 5 years when saving a few £ per panel seems like a good idea.
17. Is LED Lighting Sustainable?
Indoor and outdoor LED lighting systems are much more sustainable than other traditional lighting methods. While fluorescent lights may be more energy-efficient than incandescent bulbs, LED lights can save even more energy, providing a more natural lighting solution for any location.
Their construction is eventually designed to be more ecologically friendly. You'll be able to make your facility more biodegradable as a result of using LED lighting systems in your facilities, cutting down on energy consumption by as much as 80% compared to other types of lighting. They can also last up to 25% longer than other types of bulbs.
18. Where Can LED Lighting Be Used?
Many diverse types of locations can utilize LED lighting systems. Warehouses, gas stations, convenience stores, parking lots, car dealerships, restaurants, and many other commercial and industrial facilities can make use of LED lights. Both indoor and outdoor LED lights are available for businesses, providing lighting for many areas such as canopies, light poles near parking spaces, storefronts, warehouse ceilings, and more.
LED lights are also used in coolers and display cases to illuminate products without generating heat near chilled products. There is virtually no limit to the ways in which facilities can use LED lights to provide appropriate lighting.
19. How bright are LED light bulbs?
LED bulbs available for standard fixtures diverge in brightness from less than 50 lumens up to about 1200 lumens. The brightest LED bulbs are the floodlights and spotlights. The brightest of these uses about 25 watts and produces light comparable to a 120-watt incandescent. The brightest LED bulbs with approximately the same size and shape as ordinary incandescent bulbs produce up to 600 lumens. With a few exceptions these bulbs are somewhat directional so they are most effective when pointed at the area to be illuminated.
20. What is the difference between a floodlight and a spotlight?
LED spotlights output a narrower beam of light, typically less than 45 degrees wide. Most of the light from a spotlight is concentrated onto a relatively small area producing a bright spot. LED floodlights output a wider beam of light, up to 120 degrees, so the light from a floodlight is spread out over a much larger area. Because the light is more concentrated, a spotlight will appear brighter than a floodlight but only within its narrower beam. A spotlight is more suited to illuminating objects and a floodlight is more apposite to illuminating areas.